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Fourth arbitrator? The controversial role of arbitral tribunal secretaries

Introduction The use and the role of tribunal secretaries in international commercial arbitration has been subject to increasing scrutiny in recent years.[1] Despite the potential benefits, concern has been expressed that secretaries may exercise the arbitral tribunal’s decision-making power, resulting in an un-appointed “fourth arbitrator”.[2] This situation would lead to …

La compravendita nel diritto dei contratti internazionali

“[…] by increasing the general mass of production, the international trade diffuses general benefit and binds, together by one common tie of interest and intercourse, the universal society of nations throughout the civilized world”.[1]   Con queste parole David Ricardo, celebre economista inglese (1772-1823), sottolineava all’inizio del XIX secolo la …